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ABILITY: Synonym with capacity or capability. The physical or mental power or skill needed to do something.

The occupational profiles composed in this project distinguish the next 5 categories in (professional) abilities:

  1. Personality/attitude/behavioural competencies
  2. General knowledge and skills.This category can be compared with the EU key competencies.
  1. Specific (sector/job) knowledge and skills.
    This category tends to be well described and covered by qualifications
  2. Mental and physical conditions.
    The capabilities to cope with specific aggravating circumstances.
  3. Diploma’s and certificates.
    Formal qualification or authority. Lots of occupations require certain registrations or personal certificates like a driving licence for chauffeurs.

ASSESSMENT: the act of judging or deciding the amount, value, quality, or importance of something, or the judgment or decision that is made.
Within the scope of this project it’s about judging the professional performance and level of abilities (compared with the standards of the occupation).

ASSESSMENT OF LEARNING OUTCOMES: Process of appraising knowledge, know-how, skills and/or competences of an individual against predefined criteria (learning expectations, measurement of learning outcomes). Assessment is typically followed by certification/acknowledgement.

ADULT VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING (AVET): This often concerns second chance education to acquire a (basic) qualification for entering the labour market.


BASIC SKILLS: The skills needed to live in contemporary society, such as listening, speaking, reading, writing and mathematics.


CERTIFICATE / DIPLOMA / TITLE: official document, issued by an awarding body, which records achievements of an individual following assessment against a predefined standard.

COMPETENCE: In the context of working and learning a competence is the (developable) ability to successfully perform (professional) tasks. It is always a combination of knowledge, skills and attitudes. (see also key competencies)

CVET/CONTINUOUS VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING: Also known as retraining and further training. Learning programs after initial vocational education and training – or after entry into working life aimed at helping individuals to:
- refresh, improve or update their knowledge and/or skills;
- acquire new skills for professional development or a career switch


DATA: information, especially facts or numbers, collected to be examined and considered and used to help decision-making. In this project the term data is mostly meant to cover both “hard” and “soft” data: quantative information or statistics as well as qualitative information.

DIALOGUE: Formal conversation between opposing parties. In this project applied for the conversation between VET and industry authorities and representatives to maintain and improve the quality of VET, and more specifically the match of VET supply with labour demand.


EUROPEAN CREDIT TRANSFER AND ACCUMULATION SYSTEM (ECTS): a set of learning outcomes of an individual which have been assessed and which can be accumulated towards a qualification or transferred to other learning programmes or qualifications;

EUROPEAN CREDIT SYSTEM FOR VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING (ECVET): an instrument designed to enable accumulation of learning outcomes gained in formal, non-formal and/or informal settings, and ease their transfer from one setting to another for validation. A credit system can be designed by describing:
- an education or training programme and attaching points (credits) to its components (modules, courses, placements, dissertation work, etc.); or
- a qualification using units of learning outcomes and attaching credit points to every unit.

EUROPEAN QUALITY ASSURANCE REFERENCE FRAMEWORK (EQARF): reference instrument to help Member States to promote and monitor continuous improvement of their VET systems based on common European references;

EQAVET: European Quality Assurance Reference Framework, designed to promote better vocational education and training by providing authorities with common tools for the management of quality.
It is accompanied by a set of 10 indicators which may be used as a “tool box” by countries as they work on adapting and developing their VET systems. The indicators are not designed for benchmarking but rather to support a culture of quality assurance in VET.

  1. Relevance of quality assurance systems for VET providers
  2. Investment in training of teachers and trainers
  3. Participation rate in VET programmes
  4. Completion rate in VET programmes
  5. Placement rate in VET programmes
  6. Utilisation of acquired skills at the workplace
  7. Unemployment rate
  8. Prevalence of vulnerable group
  9. Mechanisms to identify training needs in the labour market
  10. Schemes used to promote better access to VET
    (for further information see:

EUROPEAN QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORK FOR LIFELONG LEARNING (EQF): Reference tool for describing and comparing qualification levels in qualifications systems developed at national, international or sectoral levels.

EVIDENCE-BASED (VET): (Programs) supported by proof of effectiveness which can be provided by documented experience or (scientific) research.

EUROPEAN QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORK FOR LIFELONG LEARNING (EQF): Reference tool for describing and comparing qualification levels in qualifications systems developed at national, international or sectoral levels.


FEEDBACK: The output of a system is used as input back into the system. A (VET) system requires knowledge of the output in order to improve or deliver on a specific output.

FEEDBACK LOOP: Mechanism through which the output of a system is continuously routed back as input. In this project the loop meant as part of quality assurance management and centred around the occupational profile as “target” to aim for in the VET program as well as a standard/reference to measure (satisfaction with) professional performance in practice.

FEEDBACK LOOPS BETWEEN IVET AND CVET: enhance permeability and 'communication' between iVET and cVET to:
- ensure learners a better transfer of information on labour market needs;
- provide a better match between those needs and the development of knowledge, skills and competences


GUIDELINES: information intended to advise people on how something can or should be done or what something should be. This project applies the term for  general directives, specific instruction and recommendations to follow inspiring examples.


IVET: general or vocational education and training carried out in the initial education system, usually before entering working life

INDUSTRY: A specific group of companies with similar businesses, products, clients and suppliers. Often used interchangeably with sector. Sector mostly describes a larger group of related/similar companies as a segment of the economy; a cluster of industries. For this project we focus on the labour market and educational needs shared by the companies involved and prefer the term sector to avoid confusion with industrial production.

INITIAL VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING (IVET): Vocational education and training carried out in the initial education system as the preparation and basic qualification for entering the labour market, often combined with general education regarding key competencies and citizenship.


JOB CHARACTERISTICS: Noticeable properties or qualities of the occupation. In this project applied as a short typification of the occupation concerned in a way often used in collective labour agreements and job evaluation systems.

JOB PROFILE: A description of the exact tasks involved in a particular job, and of the skills, experience, and personality a person would need in order to do the job. In this project the job profiles consist of a brief characterization, a list of (standardized) tasks to perform, a list of (standardized) abilities with the desired level to possess and the relevant VET diploma’s (mandatory and desired).


KEY COMPETENCIES: A set of 8 competencies considered essential for life-long learning:

  • Literacy competence
  • Multilingual competence
  • Mathematical competence and competence in science, technology and engineering
  • Digital competence
  • Personal, social and learning to learn competence
  • Citizenship competence
  • Entrepreneurship competence
  • Cultural awareness and expression competence

For further information follow this link (to





OCCUPATIONAL PROFILE: ALSO KNOWN AS JOB PROFILE. A description of the exact tasks involved in a particular job, and of the skills, experience, and personality a person would need in order to do the job



QUALITY ASSURANCE: Quality assurance is an organisation's guarantee that the product or service it offers meets the accepted quality standards. It is achieved by identifying what "quality" means in context; specifying methods by which its presence can be ensured; and specifying ways in which it can be measured to ensure conformance.



SECTOR: A segment of the economy or a (large) group of similar companies sharing a specific part of the market in terms of products, clients and suppliers but also of labour, craftmanship and educational needs. Companies are often organised in and represented by sectoral associations which are potential collocutors for VET authorities and representatives

SECTOR MAP: A visual representation of a sectors’ professions, organized by the dimension of level and content of the work.

STATISTICS: Method to gain insight into phenomena by means of figures or collection of figures collected and presented.


TASK: A usually assigned piece of work to be done and accomplish the intended result within a certain time



VACANCY: Unfilled position in the labour market, within a company, an organization or a government service that is open to jobseekers.

VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRANING (VET): Learning programs aiming for professional qualifications or education and training which aims to equip people with knowledge, know-how, skills and/or competences required in particular occupations or more broadly on the labour market.

VET-PROVIDER: Any organisation or individual providing vocational education or training services. Education and training providers may be organisations specifically set up for this purpose, or they may be other bodies, such as employers who provide training as part of their business activities. Training providers also include independent individuals who offer services. In this project we focus on specialized educational institutes providing qualifying programmes.


WORK PLACEMENT: Also known as traineeship or internship. A temporary job, mostly unpaid, that you do as part of a course or study in order to get practical training and experience.